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Nursing Class

Barriers to Healthcare Assistance

Barriers to Healthcare Assistance III

Nurses need to be sensitive to the differences between their own culture and the culture of their clients to assist them in their healthcare.


Roles I

The main roles of local, state, and federal agencies are:

  • Collecting and analyzing important data
  • Providing information and health education to people
  • Investigating and controlling communicable diseases
  • Protecting environment to reduce health risks
  • Offering health services to a particular group at risk or a group with limited access to medical care
  • Identifying the health problems of groups with risk factors


Roles II

Public health nurses haw to play the roles of.

  • Advocate
  • Case Manager
  • Referral Resource
  • Assessor
  • Educator
  • Primary Caregiver
  • Role model



  • Collects, monitors, and analyzes data
  • Assists the client in developing and implementing the health plan


Case Manager

  • Helps the client identify cost-effective services
  • Speaks on behalf of the client, if required


Referral Resource

  • Is aware of:
  • The health and living conditions of the people
  • The resources required and available
  • The social and cultural norms of the community
  • Educates clients about the services available and refers them to other services



  • Analyzes the literacy levels of the clients since individuals with limited literacy may not always understand the instructions of the health care providers.
  • Identifies the needs of the community and conducts educational activities to change behavior
  • Provides information in ways that clients understand and use it


Primary Caregiver

Serves both in the clinic and in the community.


Role Model

  • Helps people benefit from the services available
  • Avoids complex and problems


Scope and Standard of Nursing in Public Health I

A nurse in a public health service focuses mainly on the prevention of illness. injury, disability, and promotion and maintenance of the health of the population.


Scope and Standard of Nursing in Public Health II

Nursing practice in public health service requires community involvement, knowledge of the entire population and its problems, and the medical knowledge of illnesses that are causing suffering in the community.


Scope and Standard of Nursing in Public Health III

The main aim of public health service is to ensure people’s access to affordable, quality health care services.


Scope and Standard of Nursing in Public Health IV

To achieve people’s access to affordable and quality health care. nurses in public health services:

  • Provide clinical preventive services to high-risk populations
  • Conduct programs to identify and cater to special needs
  • Recommend clinical care and other health related services in clinics, homes, and communities
  • Provide referrals through community links for medical care
  • Educate people on essential health care information
  • Identify community centers for specific health needs
  • Identify and investigate communicable diseases


Scope and Standard of Nursing in Public Health V

Issues in public health are:

  • Inappropriate use of drugs leading to loss of effectiveness of the drug
  • Social Issue such as welfare reform
  • Disparity in the quality of health care service rendered to different races
  • Unequal access to health care facilities
  • And lack of preparedness to tackle emergency situations


Roles of Nurses – School Nurse I

Let’s now look at nursing roles in the community, beginning with the role of nurses in schools.

School nurses provide comprehensive health care to children and staff in school.


Roles of Nurses – School Nurse II

A school nurse delivers services as a:

  • Direct Caregiver
  • Health Educator
  • Case Manager
  • Consultant
  • Counselor
  • Community Outreach
  • Researcher



Direct Caregiver

  • Responds immediately to the needs of injured or sick children


Health Educator

  • Teaches health issues such as nutrition, onset of puberty, and other Issues specified by the state


Case Manager

  • Coordinates with other health care providers to cater to the needs of children with special requirements, sets up schedules, and ensures that the academic routine is not disturbed



  • Provides information on health issues to parents and teachers
  • Informs proposed changes
  • Recommends changes
  • Discusses effects of health issues on children



  • Needs to be trustworthy and approachable
  • Does grief counseling


Community Outreach

  • Participates in community health fairs
  • Conducts health awareness programs
  • Coordinates with local health charities to be part of school health programs



  • Ensures that care given to children is evidence-practice based
  • Participates in research to improv school nursing practice


Scope and Standard of Nursing in Public Health VI

The three prevention levels in schools are:

  • Primary Prevention
  • Secondary Prevention
  • Tertiary prevention


Primary Prevention

Nurses at the primary prevention level promote and provide health education to prevent health problems. The main areas of primary preventions that nurses focus on are:

  • Preventing childhood injuries
  • Preventing abuse by harmful substances
  • Reducing the risk of developing chronic illnesses and other diseases
  • Monitoring immunization program of children


Secondary Prevention

This is the main responsibility of the nurse as it involves direct health care when the children need it. The areas of secondary health care are:

  • Nursing care for emergencies in schools
  • Medication in schools
  • Assessment and screening of children at school
  • Screening children for lice
  • Identification of child abuse or neglect
  • Communication with health care providers
  • Prevention of suicide
  • Identification of violence at school
  • Social crisis teams
  • Response to disasters


Tertiary Prevention

Tertiary prevention involves helping children with long-term or chronic illnesses and special needs. The children who need tertiary prevention are:

  • Children with Asthma
  • Children with Diabetes Mellitus
  • Autistic Children
  • Children with special needs
  • Children with DNR orders (do-no-resuscitate order)
  • Homebound children
  • Pregnant teenagers and teenage mothers at schools



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Nursing 340 – Public Health Nursing 

1. Introduction to Public Health Nursing