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Neuroscience, Attachment,& Sociocultural
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
- Studies the relationship between brain changes and developing the child’s processing and behavior patterns.
- What transformations in brain systems make it harder for adolescents and adults than for children to acquire a second language?
- Brain is highly plastic during infancy and early childhood
- the positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual
- Konrad Lorenz (1966)
- Imprinting—behavior that takes place during a critical period and involves attachment to the first moving object that is observed.
- e.g. goslings whose eggs were raised in an incubator and viewed him immediately after hatching would follow his every movement.
- Harry Harlow’s study on attachment
- Milk alone wasn’t sufficient to create attachment
- The more responsive caregivers are to baby’s signals (cry, smile, cling, etc.), the more likely it is that the child will become securely attached.
- Vygotzky’s Sociocultural Theory—focuses on how culture is transmitted to the next generation.
- Social interaction—cooperative dialogues with more knowledgeable members of society
- Essential for success in a particular culture
- Children in every culture develop unique strengths
- Sales abilities with little or no schooling.
Ecological Systems theory
- Views the child as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment.
- Microsystem—child’s immediate surroundings
- Mesosystem—child’s immediate settings
- School, neighborhood, child-care center
- Exosystem—social settings that affect but do not contain the child
- Community, schools, extended family, etc.
- Macrosystem—consists of cultural values, laws, and resources
- Affect support received at inner levels
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Psychology 041 – Life Span Psychology
1. History and Fundamentals